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Korean Journal of Fertility and Sterility 1997;24(3):311-318.
Published online January 1, 2001.
Acceleration of Early Embryonic Development by Induction of Acrosome Reaction in Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.
Y J Lim, D R Lee, J E Lee, H J Kim, H R Paik, H S Yoon, H N Shim, J H Cho, S I Roh
Bypassing acrosome reaction and fusion process in intracytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI), most of injected spermatozoa still contain intact acrosome contents and plasma membrane. It Is not known yet what acrosome contents and plasma membrane of spermatozoa have effect on the development of embryo. For further understanding of fertilization process after ICSI, we studied the time of pronucleus formation, disappearance and first cleavage in human zygote, and pregnancy rate in relation to acrosome reaction rate of spermatozoa after ICSI. Seventy cycles undergoing ICSI program were randomly selected. Sperm suspension from 38 cycles were treated 50% human follicular fluid(hFF) for 3 hours in order to induce acrosome reaction, others were not treated as control. Acrosome reaction in hFF treated and non-treated group was assessed by fluorescein isothiocyanate(FITC)-conjugated Arachis hypogea(PNA) and Pisum sativum agglutinin(PSA). Oocytes were classified into 'good' and 'poor' according to their morphology. After ICSI, fertilization of oocytes were assessed by detection of two pronuclei at 16 hours. The pronuclei disappearance and first cleavage of zygotes were observed at 24 hours, and then embryos were transferred to uterus after culture for 72 hours. The rate of acrosome reaction of spermatozoa in hFF treated group was significantly higher than that in control(p<0.01). Fertilization rates of good oocytes were not different both control and hFF treated group(81.3%(174/206) vs. 72.1%(102/130)). But, in poor oocytes, the fertilization rates in hFF treated group(72.1%(149/183)) were increased compared than those of control group (63.6%(98/140), p<0.01). In either good or poor oocytes, the rates of pronuclei disappearance in hFF treated-spermatozoa injected oocytes were higher than control (59.1%(103/174), 56.4%(84/149) vs. 32.4%(33/102), 37.8%(37/98), p<0.01). Also, the rates of thirst cleavage were increased in hFF treated group (31%(54/174), 24.1%(36/149)) compared than those of control group (10.8%(11/102), 13.2%(13/98), p<0.01). The pregnancy rates of hFF treated group (42.1%(16/38)) were slightly higher than control group (28.1%(9/32), p>0.05). But, the pregnancy rate of group which possessed more than one cleavaged zygote at 24 hours was higher than group which did not (45.2%(19/42) vs. 21.4%(6/28), p<0.05). From these results, the development of zygotes were faster in higher, acrosome reacted sperm group than lower acrosome reacted sperm group after ICSI. Our results may be explained that acrosomal membrane and plasma membrane are easily detached from spermatozoa in acrosome reacted spermatozoa compared with acrosome intact sperm in the cytoplasm of oocyte during pronuclear formation. We conclude that the injection of acrosome reacted spermatozoa will increase the pregnancy rate as they can induce fast embryonic development in ICSI.


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