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Korean Journal of Reproductive Medicine 2010;37(2):89-98.
Published online June 1, 2010.
Sex Steroid Hormone and Ophthalmic Disease.
Jin Ju Kim, Hyeong Gon Yu, Seung Yup Ku
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
2Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
3Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
4Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Population, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
Abstract
Sex and its tropic hormones influence the lacrimal system, corneal anatomy and disease, aqueous humor dynamics and glaucoma, crystalline lens and cataract, and retinal disease. Dry eye occurs especially frequently during pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, and after menopause, during which androgen levels decrease. Androgen control development, differentiation, and lipid production of sebaceous glands throughout the body, and androgen deficiency also leads to meibomian gland dysfunction and evaporative dry eye. On the other hand, estrogen causes a reduction in size, activity, and lipid production of sebaceous glands. Sex and its tropic hormones also influence the corneal anatomy and disease, and corneal thickening occurred on the second day of the menstrual cycle and around the time of ovulation and appeared to be related to estrogen levels. Fuchs' dystrophy is more commonly seen in postmenopausal women than men and may be linked to hormonal changes that occur with aging. In addition, overexpression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the conjunctiva of vernal keratoconjunctivitis patients. Serum progesterone levels also may be associated with intraocular pressure especially in pregnant women, and for the women. For women with cataracts, hormone levels were typical of menopause, and there was a significant negative correlation between estradiol and follicular stimulating hormone levels. In addition, serum testosterone levels are associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy. Although the role of sex hormones on the eye is largely unknown, and the results should be interpreted with caution until replicated, the functions of sex hormones in ocular disease remains to be investigated, because they may be involved in structure and function of the ocular components, which are important in the pathogenesis of ocular disease.
Key Words: Gender; Sex hormone; Ocular disease; Ocular physiology
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