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Korean Journal of Fertility and Sterility 1981;8(2):45-55.
Clomiphene Citrate on Male Infertility
Kang-Hyun Lee, Hee-Yong Lee
Department of Urology. College of Medicine. Seoul National University
남성 불임증 환자에 대한 Clomiphene의 효과
이강현, 이희영
서울대학교 의과대학 비뇨기과학교실
Clomiphene citrate. antiestrogen, was given to 39 infertile males whose spermatogenesis were disturbed and the efficacy of the drug was evaluated at the Department of Urology in 1980. (Table 1). Patients were divided into 3 clinical observation groups such as group I composed of 19 cases of idiopathic azoospermia, group II consisted of 15 cases of oligospermia following the vasovasostomy, and group III comprised 5 cases of testicular azoospermia. (Table 2). Clinical characteristics of these patients were as follows: Age of the patients ranged from 26 to 43 years old with mean of 34, and that of their wives ranged from 24 to 41 years old with mean of 31. Duration of marital life ranged from 1 to 21 years with mean of 5 years. Sizes of testis ranged from 6 to 25 ml with mean of 16 ml. Coital frequency ranged from 0.5 to 6 per week with mean of 2.4 per week. Levels of plasma FSH ranged from 3.15 to 23.06 lU/1 with mean of 8.15 lU/1, those of LH ranged from 2.98 to 19.89 lU/1 with mean of 8.18 lU/1 and those of testosterone ranged from 3.09 to 9.97 ng/ml with mean of 6.48 ng/ml. (Table 3). Clomiphene citrate was given in dosage of 50 mg per day (in d.) orally to 31 patients for 3 to 9 months and in dosage of 100 mg per day (b.i.d.) orally to 8 patients for 3 to 9 months. (Table 8). Semen samples were analysed monthly on each patient by routine analysis techniques. For the assessment of the efficacy of Clomiphene citrate on faulty spermatogenesis following empirical criteria were used: For semen quality: Improvement (I) represents that semen parameter increased more than 25% from basal level after the treatment, Unchange (U) expresses that semen parameter increased less than 25% of basal level or not changed after the treatment and Deterioration (D) means that semen parameter decreased from basal level after the treatment. For fertility unit (total counts ${\times}$ motility ${\times}$ morphology ${\div}10^6$): Improvement (I) represents that fertility unit increased more than 10 units after the treatment, Unchange (U) expresses that fertility unit increased less than 10 units or not changed after the treatment, and Deterioration (D) means that fertility unit decreased after the treatment. (Table 4). Results obtained from the Clomiphene therapy were as follows: Changes of spermiograme before and after the Oomiphene therapy shown in the Table 5. Sperm counts increased from 23 to 31 ${\times}10^6$/ml in group I, from 17 to 29 ${\times}10^6$/ml in group II. Other parameters of spermiogramme were not changed significantly after the treatment. Fertility units increased from 14 to 18 units after the treatment in group I, and from 16 to 18 units after the treatment in group II. Effectiveness of Clomiphene citrate on spermatogenesis was summarised in the Tables 6 and 7. After the treatment, sperm count increased in 11 patients, motility increased in 6 patients, morphology increased in 4 patients and fertility units increased in 9 patients. No sperm could be produced by Clomiphene citrate in group III of testicular azoospermia. Dosage of 50 mg of Clomiphene citrate per day for 3 to 6 months was proved to be the most effective in the present series. (Table 8). Pregnancy occurred in 2 patients after the treatment. No particular side effects were noted by the treatment. Pharmacologic compounds used for male infertility were shown in the Table 9. Reported results of Clomiphene citrate were shown in the Table 10.


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